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The American fiasco in the Middle East, coupled with the bequeathed legacy of Trump’s era, is posing tremendous challenges to the new American administration. Though the latest Russian invasion of Ukraine and the ongoing horrendous chaos in the global economy are distracting Washington from China, the Biden’s administration so-called “Indo-Pacific” strategy entails that Asia remains a top priority to Washington. In one of his latest works titled “Destined for War”, Graham Allison examines whether China and the US are heading towards a prolonged war. Although the recent lockdowns in China are presenting challenges to it is goals of taking over the US as the biggest economy in 2030, Beijing’s military activities in South China continue to puzzle the Biden’s administration.
Geopolitically speaking, the rise of China has prompted US policy makers to alter their prolonged “Asia-Pacific” strategy to deal with the so-called Chinese threat .Coupled with the formation of trilateral security alliances, including the AUKUS, the so-called “Indo-Pacific” strategy aimed at thwarting Beijing’s growing influence from the Western Pacific to the Indian Ocean. The released document says explicitly that Washington is expected to focus on “every corner” of the region. Yet, despite this, the so-called “Indo-Pacific” strategy is not confined to containing China only; it aims to develop a new security architecture in Asia as well.
The concept of “free and open” Indo-Pacific, therefore, offers an ideological and political justification for the American deployment in the region. It is an ideological and political construct that aims at preventing the rise of China, while securing the American interests in the “imagined” region. Last Month, Kurt Campbell, the U.S. National Security Council coordinator for the “Indo-Pacific”, said that America is more likely to witness a strategic surprise in the Pacific region. In addition to that, the latest security pact between China and Solomon Islands has provided American and Australian policy makers with the opportunity to further securitize the region.
The aim of this paper, however, is not to examine China’s actions and policies, but to assess the applicability of the post-structuralism approach in the case of the Indo-Pacific. In other words, the aim of the paper is to examine how the “Indo-Pacific” was imagined and constructed through political discourse.
Instead of dealing with the region as naturally given, the paper questions the “naturalness” of the region. Since Post-Structuralism and critical geopolitics are interested in studying the relationship between geographical knowledge and power, it has become increasingly necessary to study how the so-called “Indo-Pacific” region is developed.
To achieve this goal, the paper relies on critical geopolitics approach to examine how the region was “imagined” and securitized. Hence, the paper argues that the “Indo-Pacific” region is an outcome of political construction and imagination to build new (American) security architecture in Asia.
Knowledge-Power Nexus
Although Post-Structuralism is an approach that is originally developed in sociology and literature, it is still widely utilized in studying international relations, especially by scholars of the critical school in IR. Though it does not provide it is readers with a “world view”, post-structuralism remains an important tool of analysis in IR. Critical Geopolitics as a strand in Post Structuralism, questions geographical assumptions and how they are dealt with, especially within policy circles.
The so-called concept of “Indo-Pacific” is widely used in many countries of the region, including Japan and Australia. Though the focus of the paper is on American imagination of the Indo-Pacific, it is important to, at least, note that countries in Asia have interests as well in developing biased knowledge of geography.
Although the term “Indo-Pacific” was not explicitly used, until very recently, maritime strategists, such a Gurpreet S. Khurana in India, criticized the strategy of the “Asia- Pacific” for ignoring the growing importance of involving India into a new strategy that aimed at containing China. According to Khurana, East Asia and New Delhi should enhance their political and economic alliances across the “Indo-Pacific”.
Likewise, Shinzo Abe, the Japanese Prime Minster, gave a speech before the Indian parliament in August 2007, arguing for the growing importance of enhancing relations between the Asia Pacific and South Asian regions. Though he did not explicitly use the term of “Indo-Pacific”, it was clear that there was a general urge to alter Washington’s policy regarding the containment of China.
President Biden perceives the so-called Chinese threat as a factor that endangers the “democratic” and “liberal” Indo-Pacific order. Hence, by portraying the struggle between China and the US as a prolonged struggle between democracy and authoritarianism fits the assumption of Post-Structuralism in IR. According to this school of thought, politics in IR is treated as black or white. The securitization and political imagination of the Indo-Pacific, therefore, are outcomes of this binary division and subjectivity.
Issue of Representation:
Based on the current literature, there are two reasons why the political construction of the so-called “Indo-Pacific” region seemed a plausible option for the Biden administration. Firstly, the American administration realized the horrendous military and political activities of Beijing from the Western Pacific to the India Ocean. Secondly, the Biden administration realized the tremendous importance of incorporating India into the new security architecture. This explains why India is incorporated into the Quadrilateral Dialogue (QUAD), which is formed to establish New Delhi as the new “security provider” in the region.
Although New Delhi’s imagination of the region is an extension of it is “Look East Policy”, India’s strategy is more cautious than Australia and Japan. Though it is part of the “QUAD”, it has been unable to determine whether it is imagination of the Indo-Pacific is aimed at excluding China. Nonetheless, the political imagination of all the “Indo-Pacific” in the Indian, American, and Australian circles entails that world maps are adjusted to fit strategic concerns of the respective time.
Hence, it has become clear that “mental maps” are all about power relations; it is the language of the “powerful”. The so-called “Indo-Pacific”, which is an outcome of political construction, aims to privilege certain nations, including Australia, Japan, and India, over the others. Therefore, it seems that we cannot have a permanent or balanced understanding of the world. In other words, policy makers asses the growing threats in a specific area and they employ the suitable strategy, which includes securitizing the “imagined” region in order to serve their strategic interests.
In one of his latest statements, Antony Blinken, US Secretary of State, said that the so-called “Indo-Pacific” is expected to shape the “trajectory” of the world in the 21st century. During his speech in Jakarta, Indonesia, Blinken said that Washington will adopt a strategy of “deterrence” to promote “peace” and ‘“stability” in the Indo-Pacific, arguing that threats are evolving dramatically in the (imagined) region.
During her latest visit to Singapore, Kamala Harris kept warning her counterparts of the Chinese “incursion” in the region, arguing that Beijing’s policies are intimidating. Again, she repeated the word “free and open” Indo-Pacific, stressing on the importance of enhancing relations with Washington’s allies to defend the “imagined” region. It has become clear; therefore, that Biden’s so-called “Indo-Pacific” strategy is a continuation of Donald Trump’s designation of China as a foe.
According to South China Morning Post, a journal based in Hong Kong, White House officials started using the term of “Indo-Pacific” during Trump’s presidency. It was an attempt to distance the Trump administration from Obama’s “Pivot to Asia”. Biden’s decision to officially use the concept, therefore, entails that the term is becoming the new “normal” in Washington’s approach towards the “imagined” region.
Yet, Biden’s strategy differs in the sense that it puts emphasis on “integrated deterrence”, and instead of constraining economic relations with the region like Trump did when he left the Trans-Pacific Partnership, Biden initiated an economic Indo-Pacific framework. Though the new strategy prompted fierce debate in Chinese policy makers, it is still adopted by the US, Australia, Japan, among others.
In his article “Maritime politics as discourse in the Indo-Pacific”, Tim Summers, an Assistant Professor and Research Fellow at Chatham House, argues that China has always been placed at the center of the geopolitical discourse within the American policy circles. He says that the Chinese threat itself is part of the evolving the geopolitical discourse in Washington.
Besides, Summers (2021) believes that maritime space, politics, and boundaries are parts of the geopolitical discourse in Asia. Therefore, Summers argues that geopolitics is material and ideological at the same time; it is a process through which knowledge is produced and internalized. By analyzing the map of the South China Sea adopted by the West, one can easily find an orientalist and biased representation of China in this area. The usage of pink or red colors in areas that are witnessing Beijing’s rise provides a virtual representation of China as a penetrator of the Sea area.
To conclude, there is a limited literature written on the political imagination and construction of the Indo-Pacific. Yet, it has become increasingly necessary to study this “imagined” region, especially in times when the US is shifting it is attention towards China. In contrary to the prevailing analysis, the Russian invasion of Ukraine is less likely to distract the Biden’s administration from China’s activities in the Indo-Pacific. In the midst of political chaos in the US, China is initiating security pact with Solomon Island to ramp up it is influence in the imagined region.
The paper tried to apply post-structuralism and critical geopolitics on the case of the Indo-Pacific, with a special focus on issues of false representations, subjectivity, and binary divisions. Yet, given the limited literature, the author of the paper advice future scholars to thoroughly examine the written and spoken statements in the US regarding the Indo-Pacific. Analysts are not exaggerating the threats of War; it might happen in the not-too-distant future. The fact that countries like Australia are allying with the US, says a lot about the growing polarization in the so-called Indo-Pacific. Analysts are not exaggerating the threats of war when they say that China is more likely to kick Washington out of the South China sea; it might happen in the not-too-distant future

Exhibitions and trade fairs will require a businessperson to spend much of their time and money to see an effective response. Hence, it is vital to know how to correctly utilize one’s resources, and time to maximize your ROI so that you can justify spending all that time out of your busy life. We will try to help you explore the ideas that will help to ensure that you get the most out of your next trade fair.

Booth the best stand space

It is crucial to book the right stand space at a trade fair. The best stand space will have the best visibility and maximum footfall. If you don’t make your move and quickly book the right space, it will be gone and you could risk being positioned at a poor corner in the event.
Professional exhibition stand builders will tell you that the best spot is at the end of an aisle or in a corner where people passing from two angles or more has to pass by. If you book your stand earlier, you can get better deals from the organizers. That is why it is best to do one’s research in advance to find the next big event which could help your company get in the spotlight.

Plan your Project

Trade show exhibitors expect a lot from businesses. It can lead to new businesses and lead your company to new heights. But if you are ill-prepared, you could end up being disappointed by the results. Many have faced this. Hence, you should hire a contractor that will help you with the exhibition stand design.
Though planning requires much more than only designing. You need to check if you have enough marketing collateral to offer at the show such as leaflets, brochures, business cards, etc. While you plan all these, let the professional trade show stand builder do the physical work.
If you are looking for a good contractor, you can try out one of the best, Expostandzone. They have a stellar record and can create a booth that is creative and outstanding, based on your directions.

Follow up

Every contact you have with a visitor to the stand must be monitored because all of them are important. It is best to keep a track of all the visitors, and business people who come by keeping their business cards somewhere safe. Things can get easily lost in such events.
After the exhibition has wrapped up, you can try to respond to all the contacts timely. The sooner you do this through a personal call or through an email, the better your chances are of closing the deal.

Prize draw

It is a great business idea to encourage visitors to participate in a prize draw competition by offering them a chance to win some item made by your business. You can collect various information by asking the participants to fill in their contact details on a tablet.
This tactic not only helps attract more visitors, but it also is a scientific way to capture data. The visitors will also be more excited about the prizes they can win, and hence will care about the products your business makes.

Eye-catching Exhibition stand

Thousands of competitors will be competing for the same goal- clients. If you want to distinguish your brand from the others you need to build an eye-catching stand. Your exhibition stand design Germany speaks a lot about your company. Since it is the most important thing, it is best to leave it to an experienced exhibition booth design company that has decades of experience. For example, Expostandzone has over 13 years of business building booths in various countries for various trade fairs and exhibitions.


Expostandzone provides 5+ free exhibition stand designs quotation from different exhibition stand contractors. if they can comprehend your ideas about the stall. You can speak to them about your thoughts on the designs, and look up the 3D visuals they offer before sealing the deal. Rest assured, they are professional exhibition stand contractors who will not disappoint you.

As leaders agreed late last year at the U.N. Climate Change Conference (COP26) in Glasgow, if the world fails to come together to mitigate the impending impacts of climate change, Africa will grapple with drought, rising sea levels, potential conflicts over water access, and increasingly frequent severe weather events, among other possible natural disasters.

The global response to climate change must incorporate the historic emissions context. As has been widely noted, China, Europe, and the United States bear the most responsibility for greenhouse gas emissions. Prioritizing the transition to renewable and imposing higher emission reduction requirements on the EU, U.S., and China will ease the burden on those nations that still need a variety of power generation methods to increase energy access.

Not only does Africa bear the least responsibility for greenhouse gas emissions, but the forests of the Congo Basin (second only to the Amazon) are vital to absorbing the CO2 emitted from other continents. Keeping the lungs of the world intact must be more valuable than cutting them down. Maintaining these natural resources is essential to combating global climate change and requires external support to properly value and incentivize their preservation.

Another big challenge is the lack of access to electricity. Today nearly 600 million of the 1.2 billion Africans lack access to electric power. In sub-Saharan Africa, 12 million new people enter the workforce every year. Our prosperity and peace are incumbent on powering our economic development and creating enough gainful employment opportunities for our growing population. That is not something that can be done in the dark. Without achieving universal access to electricity, we will be vulnerable to underdevelopment, high unemployment, a migration crisis, and instability. Given the close interplay of these challenges as well as their threat to the overall region, we must find a way to solve both if our continent is to realize a peaceful and prosperous future.

To narrow the energy access gap as quickly as possible, Africa must employ a variety of power sources already utilized by the U.S., EU, and China while simultaneously phasing out coal. Such a shift requires mobilizing development financing to support natural gas, hydro, and geothermal projects, as well as wind and solar energy.

Importantly, the double standard for those nations in the Global North with universal energy access was on full display at COP 26. For example, EU climate chief Frans Timmermans said, “[The European Union] will have to also invest in natural gas infrastructure. As long as we do it with an eye of only doing this for a period, then I think this is a justified investment.” The EU and U.S., who control significant voting stakes in the largest international financial institutions (IFIs), then led a pledge by 20 countries to stop financing gas projects abroad. Without support from IFIs, African nations will be unable to build and maintain the infrastructure required to utilize our natural gas. This sharp contrast in words and actions sends the message that natural gas is considered a bridge to renewable in the Global North—where access to electricity is secure—while natural gas is an unnecessary luxury to Africans who still do not have access to reliable electricity.

Finally, African nations must capitalize on the green economic revolution. The global transition to renewable energy will mean exponentially scaling up the production of batteries, electric vehicles, and other renewable energy systems, which depend on Africa’s natural resources. For example, the Democratic Republic of the Congo accounts for 70 percent of the world’s cobalt, the mineral vital to battery production. With the demand for cobalt expected to at least double by 2030, it is unfathomable that the miners, who provide the world with the material essential to the energy transition, return to homes without electricity. We need to leverage our control over such markets to elevate working conditions, move beyond raw material exports toward manufacturing and processing capacity, and capture greater portions of green energy supply chains. We cannot afford to repeat the mistakes of past economic revolutions.

By Jeanine Mabunda Lioko
Ms Jeanine Mabunda Lioko Mudiayi was the first woman to be elected as President of the National Assembly of the Democratic Republic of Congo, serving from April 24th, 2019, to December 10th, 2020. She has been a Member of the Congolese Parliament since 2011, having been re-elected in 2018, as a National Deputy of Bumba, Équateur Province.
From 2014 to 2018, Jeanine Mabunda served as the Personal Representative of the President to combat sexual violence and child soldier recruitment.

From 2007 to 2012, Jeanine Mabunda served as Minister of Portfolio and Public Enterprises, charged with reforming the DRC’s state-owned enterprises. At that time, state-owned enterprises employed over 100,000 workers and the country was facing several socio-economic challenges.

Jeanine Mabunda holds a law degree from the Catholic University of Louvain and a bachelor’s degree in business sciences from the Catholic Institute of Higher Commercial Studies (ICHEC) in Brussels.

 

 

Still well into the 21st century and majority of Africa remains stuck in poverty. Through a differential diagnosis lens one might come up with various explanations for this like environmental conditions, disease, poor education, governmental corruption etc. All these reasons would be right. Although if referring to history to isolate one of the primary significant contributors under-pinning development issues experienced in Africa, one need not look any further than colonial exploitation.

The “Scramble for Africa” between 1881 and 1914 by several Western European powers, taking advantage of the continent, left a disastrous colonial legacy still felt today. By 1914, only Liberia and Ethiopia remained unconquered and independent. The rest of the states? Poor, vulnerable and weak, succumbed to arbitrary division and artificial boundaries drawn up by the Imperial forces.Politically dominated, although rich in natural resources, cotton, gold, diamonds etc. left African states to be ransacked by disparate European trade interests.With no infrastructure framework existent prior to European colonization and with roughly a third of African countries being land-locked, foreign power-brokers took to work with constructing railroads to move product to coastal states for transshipment and exportation.A resulting consequence however, was a partial infrastructure grid being created; each colonial power merely constructing railway networks from their mining operation sites to a few major cities and coastal ports utilized by them. This compared to, say, India’s railway network where a full grid was built due to a single unified colonial power, Great Britain, having created a unified infrastructure network for their singular interests, which at the material time was primarily for harvesting and trading India’s cotton.

Modern India benefiting from this railway network, now a major import and export commodity partner of various foreign countries. In the East, throughout the balance of the 20th century, African states slowly moved towards independence and broke away from colonial rule.However, the colonial legacy left was an infrastructure network that remains incomplete with no integration or coalescence.Not isolated to the railway networks alone but inclusive of ports, power plants and roads that still have major gaps and deficiencies creating obstacles to fiscal diversification, investment and growth.African states aiming to develop and initiate self-autonomous trade to establish themselves as contenders in the world’s trade game attempt to fix this botched infrastructure foundation.The modern global economy now geared towards fiscal control rather than military land control, has opened the door for a new economic colonizer, China, to dominate Africa.

In the 21st century, China is the single largest financier for African infrastructure.A 2018 Deloitte report documents that one third of African infrastructure projects are constructed by China and one fifth of projects are financially backed by China. Estimates by the African Development Bank in 2019 approximated US$130 billion to US$170 billion dollars were required for continental infrastructure needs.Bootstrapped as it is, African governments are more than willing to take out Chinese loans to advance such initiatives.

These major holdings in African infrastructure, leaves many African governments economic development ambitions at the mercy of Chinese willingness, or unwillingness, to fund. A recent example is Xi Jinping’s ‘Belt and Road’ initiative, a flagship Eastern African rail project meant to connect Uganda and Kenya. Concrete sleeper tracks were laid, the project appearing well underway, until it was discontinued by Beijing’s withholding of about $4.9 billion needed to enable completion.

The rail line is now dormant, with construction having stopped in a remote Western village of Nairobi rather than connecting the major Kenyan coastal port of Mombasa with land-locked Uganda. The Ugandan government has now resolved to alter design plans and connect the Ugandan side of the railway with an alternative, very old rail line however the project will still require funding.

Conduct such as this has raised doubts of China’s intentions, as it is all too easily able to entrap African states, already indebted, into further debt forcing their hand to take out Chinese loans. Beijing claims it’s merely re-assessing its debt exposure however, recurring patterns of 19th and 20th century colonial military control and modern day economic control tactics are all too similar to be discounted entirely.

Geoeconomics is the economics of politics in which states as well as supranational and intergovernmental institutions use their economic resources to help them gain political leverage.

China is an energy dependent country. In order to feed its 1.4 billion population, China needs resources.

China’s strategies ranging from the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) to Shanghai Cooperation organization (SCO), speak the language of geoeconomics. Geoeconomics may not be part of China’s official dictum.

 

However, its economic strategies from trade to aid and from investment to institutional initiatives insinuate its geoeconomics. Geoeconomics is China’s strongest instrument to make its mark in the world affairs. China is creating balance of dependence with its geoeconomic strategy in the world. China is an energy dependent country. In order to feed its 1.4 billion population, China needs resources.

Its geoeconomic strategy is its way forward to make necessary resources available for its population. However, it does not end here. Creation of a Sino-Centric world order and the promotion of One-China policy are at the core of China’s geoeconomics. This article focuses on China’s geoeconomics in Africa and how does it help China promote its One-China Policy in the continent.
The One-China Policy is China’s official stance which stresses on diplomatic recognition of People’s Republic of China’s government as the only legitimate Chinese government. China considers the Republic of China, commonly known as Taiwan, as its breakaway region which will one day reunify. The end of civil war in 1949 created the demarcation between China and Taiwan whose leader Chiang Kai-Shek withdrew to Taiwan and established the Nationalist government there. Since then both sides claim to be sole representative of the whole territory of China. However, Taiwan’s claim over mainland China is somehow receding. Mainland China, on the other hand, strongly claims Taiwan to be its integral part and does not leave any stone unturned to diplomatically isolate it. Geoeconomics is China’s main weapon to achieve this political goal.
Due to its geoeconomics, China’s footprints in Africa are getting strength with every passing moment. China uses its geoeconomic leverage to promote its One-China policy in Africa and strives to further isolate Taiwan diplomatically.

However, China’s geoeconomics in Africa is not a recent phenomenon. It can be traced back to Mao’s Great Leap Forward era. In this context, Julia Lovell in her book, “Maoism A Global History” claims that from the very beginning of Africa’s decolonization, China started exerting a symbolic influence on the continent. Such influence, she claims, was significant for China’s winning entrance into the United Nations. African states, however small, were numerous and played in favour of China’s seat in the UN. In 1971, China took over the seat from Taiwan and became member of the UN. Moreover, China also took over the permanent membership of the UN Security Council from Taiwan which it held till 1971. Hence, China’s geoeconomics in Africa has over a half century history which has been bearing multi-faceted fruit for China.

China maintains strong geoeconomic balance of dependency in all countries of Africa.

China’s geoeconomics in Africa supports its powerhouse in the world affairs. The African continent does not only support political stance of the mainland China in the world but it also provides China with abundance of resources. It is a win-win situation for China. The value trade between China and Africa in 2019 was over 200 billion dollars. Besides trade, China has heavily invested in the continent. Its investments focus ranging from building roads and railway tracks to building stadiums and presidential palaces in the Continent.

Therefore, China maintains strong geoeconomic balance of dependency in all countries of Africa. There are 54 countries in the African continent and out of those 54 countries, there is only 1 African country the Kingdom of Eswatini which maintains diplomatic relations with Taiwan. However, China is also putting pressure on it to severe diplomatic ties with Taiwan too. Despite diplomatic pressure from the mainland China, Eswatini maintains its strong diplomatic ties with Taiwan which started after its independence in 1968.


Currently, Estwatini is the only African country among 15 countries that maintain diplomatic relations with Taiwan. However, despite diplomatic isolation, Taiwan maintains substantive ties with the US, countries in the European Union (EU), Canada, Australia and many other countries. Additionally, Taiwan’s passport holders have visa-free, visa on arrival or e-visa privilege in more than 150 states and territories in the world.

Nevertheless, it faces an existential threat from China which may not use force to take it back but it is using its geoeconomics effectively to isolate it diplomatically for the time being following Sun Tzu’s dictum, “The supreme art of war is to subdue the enemy without fighting”. Therefore, following the geoeconomic footsteps, China’s government is effectively winning influence and subduing its enemy without fighting.

young ethnic female student doing assignment with tutor in university
Nowadays, community colleges are not what they used to be – in fact, and there are significant benefits to attend a junior community college. There are a lot of reasons associated with attending a local community college to begin your college education. Many parents prefer to send their children to a community college rather than going to private college because of the advantages it has to offer. Students having a dream school in their mind might not be thinking of enrolling in a community college. But when it comes to paying hefty money for those dream colleges, a community college can be a good start. Besides, students with an excellent academic record at these colleges can get transfer to other renowned institutions around the world. Here are some benefits of enrolling in the community college:

Save on tuition fees

Generally, private college tuition fees are hefty as compared to community college. The private colleges charge thousands of dollars more than the community college for a four-year degree, which not everyone can afford. According to a community college review, the average published fees of a community college for a two-year degree is just $3200. Financial advantage is the most obvious reason that students go for public education. If you plan on transferring to a good institute for further studies, your parents get the chance to save for your 4-year degree.

Idriss Zackaria, Director of YD Africa.

Better transfer opportunities

It works as a perfect solution for students who don’t score well coming out of high school. You can simultaneously obtain an associate degree while working on your GPA and resume. If you are ready to commit to attending regular classes, then you can build up your GPA. Even many renowned universities offer graduate admission program where you are offered direct admission to a 4-year degree course after completing your education at community college successfully. Almost every student who attends a community college has an intention to get transferred to a four-year institution. Everyone wants to get admission in top universities after a two-year degree, so getting admission in a community college can help you attain that milestone.

Smarter classes and increased flexibility

Community colleges are known for their flexible academic curriculum and schedules. It provides more options than any private institute in terms of class schedules, educational opportunities, and other curricular activities. You will get an excellent opportunity to explore a variety of majors program. So, if you think of switching to a private school, it will be more comfortable as the risk involved is smaller. Studying in community colleges is very advantageous as you come across a bounty of activities and opportunities to explore and change your mind.

 

Qualified professors

You will get to meet the best teachers from your town at the community college. Some of them might have come directly after completing their master’s, but mostly you will find Ph.D. holders at public institutions. When parents choose a college for their child, they want them to get educated by the best professors in the region. They all want devoted and committed educators who can teach them through their past experiences. These colleges are not only beneficial for their students but teachers also in terms of salaries and job satisfaction. On the other hand, teachers in private colleges don’t have the same level of education, experience, and commitment.

Personalized attention

Many community colleges have less class strength, which gives each student more attention from the teachers. It can be a plus point for students who need special attention and extra care because every student is unique. Some students have excellent grasping power, and others learn at their own pace. If your child needs special one-on-one attention from the instructors, then community college is the best choice for them. Therefore, they are preferred by most of the parents so that their child gets more personalized attention from the teachers.

The bottom line

Experience a different educational environment while studying in community college. These benefits mentioned above of the community college are sufficient to convince anyone to attend it. No matter what people say, but community college has better education standards than private ones, and this is one of the most significant advantages it holds over private college.

In January following the assassination of Iranian General Qassem Soleimani, the Iraqi parliament voted unanimously for the removal of the remaining U.S. troops in the country. The non-binding resolution was encouraged by Shiite political factions outraged by the killing of Iran-backed militia leader Abu Mahdi al-Muhandis in the same airstrike.

The resolution was subsequently passed without minority Sunni or Kurdish lawmakers present. However, Iraqi-U.S. relations have improved since the selection of a new prime minister in May, Mustafa al-Kadhimi. This selection came about after a leadership vacuum plagued Iraq for four months, following Adil Abdul-Mahdi’s resignation in November 2019. As the country’s former intelligence chief, Kadhimi has good relations with U.S. officials but emphasises his desire to take back sovereignty from foreign powers.

Middle East in a nutshell.

On June 11 the United States and Iraq began strategic talks covering the future of the 5,000 U.S. troops in Iraq and the economic situation following a collapse in oil prices and the developing Covid-19 pandemic. Iran-backed forces in Iraq have been applying pressure for U.S. military withdrawal through relentless shelling of the U.S. Embassy in Baghdad.

The U.S. have an important decision to make on how to withdraw troops from the region without undoing years of hard work since the U.S. first began engaging in Iraq in 2003. However, as conflict between U.S. and Iranian proxies accelerates a path toward two alternatives is developing; all-out war or a fast US withdrawal.

Here, I will briefly outline what I perceive to be the outcomes from the U.S. choosing to either withdraw, partly withdraw or remain in Iraq.

Firstly, the option to withdraw U.S. troops from Iraq would avoid further conflict and all-out war in the region with Iranian proxies. However, this undermines the U.S. efforts to counter Iranian influence in the region. The U.S. acts as a counterweight to Iran and once withdrawn would expose an economically hurt Iraq to the more powerful Iran. The increasing Iranian presence is likely to spark yet more protests against foreign interference following protests in October 2019, resulting in the death of 420 Iraqi protesters and the resignation of prime minister Adil Abdul-Mahdi. Furthermore, the U.S. has held an important role in training and funding Iraq’s counterterrorism service. Peter Neumann, the founding director of the International Centre for the Study of Radicalisation claims this service is “multi-ethnic and largely incorrupt”. The U.S. withdrawal from the region would lead to this counterterrorism service being merged with the Shiite Iranian-backed militias also fighting ISIS. Without the funding and training towards counterterrorism from the U.S. there is the possibility of an ISIS resurgence in Iraq and with it a threat to U.S. national security.

A second approach to U.S. withdrawal from Iraq would be to transfer troops to military bases in the autonomous Kurdistan region in the north, at the request of the Kurds. The presence of US forces acts as an insurance policy for Sunni’s and Kurds against a rejuvenation of ISIS and help to strike a balance between all Iraqi religious sects and political powers. Galip Dalay, a fellow at the German Institute for International and Security Affairs noted that a U.S. withdrawal would mean that “the Kurds would be more at the mercy of the militias, Iran and the central government”. This option would likely relinquish Iraq’s ability to resist Iran and so surrender the majority of Iraq to Iranian influence in the same way as in the previously explained option. In addition, would U.S. bases in Kurdistan afford the Kurds the strength to apply pressure in disputed regions, leading to increasing tensions between Kurdistan and the ceded pro-Iran Iraq region?

Moreover, the U.S. may choose not to withdraw and remain a presence in Iraq but levy significant economic sanctions on Iran leading to a defunding of the militias in Iraq. The U.S. policy of “maximum pressure” imposing economic sanctions on Iran, has led to an inflationary recession in the country and the Iranian currency to fall two-thirds of its value. Despite food and medicine being exempt from sanctions the lack of Iran’s access to the global financial system has led to shortages in these necessities. Although the sanctions are failing to bring Iran back to the negotiating table or trigger unrest in the country and an overthrow of the regime, the sanctions are successfully cutting funding to Iran-backed militias in Iraq. Earlier this year the new commander of the Iranian Quds Force, Esmail Ghaani, had to substitute the usual cash handouts to Iraqi militias for silver rings. The reduction in funding has led to divisions emerging in the Popular Mobilisation Forces (PMF), the umbrella group of mainly Shia fighters. Could economic sanctions on Iran lead to a breakup and loss in cohesion between the Pro-Iran factions responsible for attacks on U.S. forces?

The final option occurs where the U.S. does not withdraw from Iraq and the U.S. are unable to sufficiently thwart Iran economically leading to a continuing of the current status quo of retaliatory conflict in Iraq between militias and U.S. However, is it impossible to conceive of a “hot war” between the U.S. and Iran in the future if tensions rise and the Iranian regime is not brought to its knees? Despite the U.S. comparatively dwarfing Iran militarily with the U.S. military budget being over 57 times larger than Iran’s, the challenges of increasing competition with Russia and China makes conflict with Iran unappealing. Therefore, if the U.S. were to maintain their presence in Iraq, they should do so by continuing with the small force currently stationed there focused on training and support of the Iraqi Security Forces.

Of the options discussed here I would suggest maintaining the U.S. presence in Iraq with a focus on avoiding conflict and training Iraqi Security Forces. By staying in the region the counterweight the U.S. holds against the increasing Iranian presence in Iraq and against the rejuvenation if ISIS is maintained. Furthermore, the insurance the U.S. provide to minority groups is not threatened and conflict is not heightened by moving U.S. troops to the Kurdistan region.

MongoDB is one of the globe’s most widely-sought after NoSQL object-oriented databases. However, like all databases, it has specific areas where it booms and others where it falters. Should you use this database for your particular business needs? Read this guide on its pros and cons to decide.

These are some aspects that you may not have a clear knowledge about. In such a case, it makes sense to take the help of a professional. They have the knowledge and understanding of what will suit your business.  Consult with them and they will help you out.

MongoDB- When should you use MongoDB for your business needs?

One of the best ways to determine whether you should use MongoDB or not is to check whether your business participates in several e-commerce products cataloging with large inventories primarily due to horizontal scalability? If yes, this database will work for your business well.

Another area where the MongoDB works well is with social networking and mobile networking websites that use geospatial data and frequently experience dynamically evolving application and data needs. The database works well for companies that rely heavily on content management and produces a vital amount of documentation, in short. MongoDB will come in useful when you are dealing with Big Data.

When should you not use MongoDB for your business needs?

It would help if you did not rely on MongoDB when your company needs strong consistencies across the database boards. However, businesses that are actively involved with billing, SLA management, trade verifications, detection of fraud, and other types of financial data should never consider MongoDB to be the key database for their business.

The best features of the MongoDB for modern businesses today

Experts in database administration say there are many ways to use MongoDB. However, you will find several ways to use this database but not for every business. The database’s specific features have many advantages, which is why it is one of the most popular NoSQL databases across the world today. Given below are some of its unique qualities –

Performance- The query performance of the MongoDB is faster as it stores maximum data in the RAM. This means the data is not taken from the hard disk during query requests. To boost the above, businesses should ensure they have precise indexes and a significant RAM.

 

Simple- Several users of MongoDB find its query syntax to be very simple and easy to understand. This is due to its query language that is more expressive than SQL. Its installation, the setup, and the execution of the database are much simpler than other databases. This is why more businesses and people embrace this NoSQL structure over their SQL counterparts for faster training and quicker learning.

 

Flexibility- The database has no pre-defined schema. This makes it get an architecture that is dynamic for storage and data that is unstructured. You can easily set values for a large number of keys making the database a potential one. This database is popular in modern times for its flexibility. If you see the vast inflow of data changing at a dynamic speed, having a MongoDB database is advantageous.

 

Scalable- One of the biggest features of the MongoDB database is its credible scalability. SQL databases utilize vertical scalability, whereas MongoDB, like NoSQL databases, deploys horizontal scalability that makes it simple to improve storage capacity.

 

Documentation- Experts from credible database administration and support company, Com, say that when you take a look at MongoDB’s resources, you will find an extensive cache of data that is precise documentation. In fact, for each version and edition, MongoDB does not ignore the details. The database offers excellent documentation for helping new and seasoned users understand the technology better.

Cons of the MongoDB database when you compare it to others

If some of the above features of MongoDB are great, other aspects are not entirely favorable for users. Though the pros of the database outweigh its cons in most cases, there are some fields where MongoDB does not perform as well as its other database peers. Let us take a look at them below-

Transactions- One of the biggest disadvantages of MongoDB is that it does not offer support for transactions. In modern days, you will find that fewer applications need transactions. Some still require them for updating collections and multiple documents. If your business operates on transactions that are mandatory for your team, you should not use MongoDB. There is a huge potential of the data becoming corrupted in case you do.

 

Joins- In MongoDB, it is very challenging and tough for you to join documents. Even though the 3.2 version introduced the left-outer joining feature, developers still need to work on the feature as it is not mature. If you need to pull information or data from many collections, you need a large number of queries that will lead to very long turnaround times and messy codes.

 

Indexing- This factor has been covered earlier. If you want to enjoy the database’s fast and optimal performance, you need to have the right indexes. If the indexes you incorporate are shoddy or are out of order, the database will function at an alarmingly slow pace.

 

Duplicates- Some of the above cons will ultimately result in duplicate data. This has taken place for several users back in the past. MongoDB’s relationship has not been defined properly, and the duplicate sets that have resulted are quite challenging to manage. Moreover, if the database is not ACID compliant, this could cause corrupted data. Be careful of this.

When choosing a good database for your business, make sure you ascertain what your individual needs are. In this way, you should place them first before embracing MongoDB for your company. In case you need more clarifications about MongoDB, you should consult good IT professionals or DBAs to get a defined and clearer idea of whether this database is ideal for your business or not.

 

 

After you’re doing UK business registration and getting an online bank account UK, one of the most important things for a business is the right accountancy services. For a business to be successful, it must have professional accountants to take care of everything, from bookkeeping to tax preparation. 

Let’s begin to discuss some of the reasons why accountancy services UK are so important and why your company, especially when you’re opening a company in a different country. 
Which Accounting Services UK Do You Need?
First and foremost, you need to know which services you’re hiring accountants for. If you are working with a company formation agent, they’ll most probably cover everything from bank account offers in the UK to online accounting services in the UK. So, you won’t have to pay for additional accountancy charges. Otherwise, you can outsource accounting services while you give all your time and attention to other aspects of the business. 

Here are the common accountancy services that you’ll need for your business:

Tax preparation
Bookkeeping 
Consulting and advising
Audit and assurance

Thus, you need a team of accountants that can provide you all these services so that you don’t have to distribute them about different accounting firms. 
Reasons for Getting Accounting Services UK
Once you are done with UK business registration, it is not the end of your encounter with official documents. Throughout the business operations, you will come across UK laws related to taxation and other things. 

If you’re a non-resident, you won’t have a clue about the regulations of the country and might not be willing to learn a new tax system. Thus, it’s essential to get the most reliable online accountancy services UK to manage your company’s accounts. 
Finding the Business Structure
You have to find the right business structure for your company to get tax benefits and be in compliance with the country’s regulations. An accountant can guide you in this matter, helping you find the business structure from the following:

Corporations
Sole trader
Trust 
Partnership
LLC

Financial Advising and Analysis

Money is one of the most important aspects of every business. When running a company, you need to know how much money you have, where it is being spent, and how you can cut costs while keeping the company’s operations as smooth as possible. 

Accountants analyze the finances of your company and advise you on proper financial management. Having an incredible team of accountants by your side means that you’ll hardly ever find yourself in a financial situation that you cannot get out of. 

Also, accountants give you advice about using the right software. All businesses need accounting software. With no accountancy knowledge, you can’t possibly know which software will be the best for your business structure and specific company needs. An accountant can help make the decision much easier, making your accounting journey smooth. 
Expense Tracking 
Another important part of business management is expense tracking. You have to keep track of everything from employee salaries to business transactions. It’s practically impossible to do this while running other departments of your company. Thus, you should leave this to a reliable accountancy firm, which will keep a record of everything you earn and how it is spent. 
Tax Preparation 
While you can do your own taxes as an individual, doing company taxes is a much harder job. Thus, you need to use tax services UK to help prepare tax returns. Having accountants by your side means that you’ll be able to get the tax benefits that the country offers, without having to do as little as reading the first page of the tax documents. 
Final Verdict 
People from all over the world are coming to the UK to start their businesses as the country offers tax benefits and makes investment easier. From getting a UK business bank account to bank account offer UK, everything is much easier than in most other parts of the world. 

If you are also planning to open a company in the UK, you must use the best accounting services UK to avail tax benefits and strictly track all your expenses. Get started today with the company formation process and take your business forward in the UK. 

The current border skirmshes along LAC (Line of Actual Control) reported in Eastern Ladakh sector and Northern Sikkim, injuring a dozen of soldiers in physical clashes, followed by increased troop positioning and increased boat-patrolling by PLA in Galwan River valley is a worrying trend for India.

This all amid a time when India is still struggling to contain the COVID Pandemic, all these incidents taking place seems insensitive now. Chinese foreign ministry spokesperson Zhao Lijian stated: “Chinese border troops have always been upholding peace and tranquility along our border areas. China and India stay in close communication and coordination concerning our border affairs within existing channels”.  The statements from The COAS of Indian Army Gen. M M Naravane said, “There were two incidents at Eastern Ladakh and North Sikkim where aggressive behaviour by both sides resulted in minor injuries to troops post which both sides disengaged after dialogue and interaction at local level”, both these statements helped to downplay the flare-up in the current situation.
An unprecedented Act?


The disputes between Indian military and PLA (People’s Liberation Army) on border areas of LAC has been the issue since the past, but the recent development on the border is different from what we have seen in the past, where in the past the tensions used to de-escalate after the meetings by local military leaders, this time however, the chinese troops are alleged to build camps near Galwan Valley with increased boat patrols in Galwan river, with no sign of abatement even after the continuous meetings between military leaders of both sides. Equally new is the vociferous act by PLA and the frequency with which these incidents happened.

Another unprecedented act is the silence of Chinese media and Chinese officials who are adopting a Silence Diplomacy, a rare show, on this issue unlike the Doklam Crisis where daily on-ground reporting was used to uplift the sentiments of the local population against India. This time, it is different with everything happening silently and with more force.
The Reasons for Dispute
China seems to be upping the ante against India. What can be the possible reasons behind it, is it a perception of boundary problem, or is it problem of taking away of special status from J&K by The GOI, or is it the recent road development by India on the Indian side of LAC, or is it the move to draw a red line for India by China over India’s changing state by supporting the Taiwan issue and an independent investigation into the origin of the Pandemic. There are several possibilities one can think of, and several analysts and experts are offering different perceptions in this regard.

India and China have a real issue of perception of boundaries, what game theorists refer to as the “Commitment problem.” In game theory, a commitment problem arises when two actors would be better off in the present by committing themselves to a cooperative relationship in the future. But, if the actors know that they will prefer to renege on their agreement in the future, the benefits of cooperation in the present cannot be realized, and even a mutually beneficial agreement cannot be struck. Simply put, if “Rising” India assumes that her material power and leverage vis-a-vis China is likely to improve, India has no incentive on accepting a China’s “benign hegemony” and a negotiated settlement at a time when India cannot realise the advantage of this increased leverage. This is also true in China’s case, with an aspiration of future “Global power”, China considers to be getting more out of India in the future. A status quo agreement that seeks to formalize the existing LAC becomes difficult to accept.

Now to understand why it is happening on Indian borders, we also have to look at the development in Chinese politics. Recently the 13th National People’s Congress (NPC) and 3rd session of 13th China People’s Political consultative Congress  (CPPCC) have concluded, which are considered to be the biggest events for the political class in China. The CCP (Chinese Communist Party) who is under severe criticism from Chinese citizens due to the Economic crisis and the handling of COVID, has opted a strategy to flex its muscles in this time to strengthen its position. The simmering tension inside CCP has made Mr. Xi do the things with alacrity and whenever an autocratic regime finds itself in danger of coup or oust, it acts vociferously inside and outside, to strengthen its position, that is what we are now seeing from Mr. Jinping’s side.

Another area to look upon is recent development in global politics, where allegations on China’s role in the contagion (COVID) has strengthened worldwide, which has prompted China to look for ways to shut the voices, be it sanctioning Australia or drawing red lines for India through border dispute or Employing the show of Power Politics in the South China Sea to shut the voices in neighbouring states. The issue of Taiwan’s inclusion into WHO and the increasing voice against Chinese action in Hongkong (where PRC has recently passed a National security bill taking away the sovereignty of Hongkong), are the issues which China has perceived as an attack to her One-China policy, which prompted China to act violently.
The recent development of Road (DSDBO) by India on the India side of LAC upto Galwan Valley is something which China wants India to avoid. China has good infrastructure near Border areas, but this is not the case for India, however, India has made strides in the recent past. The latest skirmishes on LAC is an excuse China is giving for her actions which is a red sign from Chinese side to India. Here, China is opting for a Pakistani strategy of blaming India for escalations on borders and justifying her actions against India.
All these amalgamate to make the current issue more serious. Now looking behind closed doors, what we don’t know is the big aspirations of current Chinese leader Mr. Jinping, to be the best leader in the Chinese history vis-a-vis his predecessors, for that what he needs is a powerful regime both Politically and Economically, which can only be consolidated when CCP looks powerful worldwide and at home, which Mr. Jinping is trying to do through coercion.
Wuhan spirit- A dead concept?
Now what about the Wuhan spirit which helped India and China to de-escalate the tensions in the Doklam area. India and China have signed several agreements, including the Agreement on the Maintenance of Peace and Tranquillity along the Line of Actual Control in the India-China Border Areas (September 1993), the Agreement on Confidence Building Measures in the Military Field along the Line of Actual Control in the India-China Border Areas (November 1996), and most recently, the Border Defence Cooperation Agreement (2013), none of which appear so far to have helped in the current tensions.
One must question the efficacy of the Wuhan Spirit, that is it really in the Indian interest now, seeing the current Chinese aggression. To answer this, We must also know the fact that Wuhan Spirit, as it is pronounced, was a measure to put-down the pressure during the Doklam crisis, which is very much different from the current situation. We must not get diverged from the fact that the current game of PLA is a long drawn strategy of PRC to capture its lost territory by small and decisive steps be it the Tibetisation of Indian Himalayas or circling India through String of pearls, every action in Chinese book has a hidden meaning and a long-term plan. Wuhan spirit is a hollow agreement by China to show the willingness to work for resolving border issues, which doesn’t reap any results in that direction, so relying on Wuhan spirit is a fallacy today.

The Road Ahead of India
The current situation is somewhat a fait accompli for India if China moves ahead by building more checkposts, then India will have two ways to confront the situation, either face the Chinese face-to-face and escalate the situation, or back-off, same as what Chinese had during the Doklam Crisis. They did back-off, but is it feasible for India.

In Diplomacy, Patience is mostly a virtue, until it is not.

The current situation doesn’t support a backing-off option and a patient approach, India needs to confront the situation with the same force as China, to send a message, at the same time increasing diplomatic pressure through forging relationships with like-minded countries is what is in the best interest of India today.
A Carnegie report highlights, the best way to guarantee “peace and tranquility” on the Sino-Indian border is to focus on military-to-military communication, which would “allow the two sides to immediately clarify any relevant issues at a more senior directive level.” Also building a military deterrence capability to reduce any future possible Chinese provocations on borders is an imperative for India today.
Conclusion
The current situation does not allow China to go on for an all-out war with India, because it will cost them Economically as well as Politically, which they cannot bear. The current geopolitical air is on the Indian side with a strengthening anti-Chinese narrative , so India is in a lead position vis-a-vis China.

The need of the hour is to de-escalate the tensions on LAC and focus on the health and Economic crises prevailing throughout the World. As Henry A. Kissinger once said,

” No foreign policy- No matter how ingenious it is- has any chance of success if it is born in The Minds of a few and carried in the Hearts of none”

The current Chinese actions fits exactly into these words. Unless the Chinese leadership considers how flawed the time they have chosen for these actions without considering its consequences, they will continue to face a dead-hole situation, from which there is no coming back.