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Geoeconomics is the economics of politics in which states as well as supranational and intergovernmental institutions use their economic resources to help them gain political leverage.

China is an energy dependent country. In order to feed its 1.4 billion population, China needs resources.

China’s strategies ranging from the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) to Shanghai Cooperation organization (SCO), speak the language of geoeconomics. Geoeconomics may not be part of China’s official dictum.

 

However, its economic strategies from trade to aid and from investment to institutional initiatives insinuate its geoeconomics. Geoeconomics is China’s strongest instrument to make its mark in the world affairs. China is creating balance of dependence with its geoeconomic strategy in the world. China is an energy dependent country. In order to feed its 1.4 billion population, China needs resources.

Its geoeconomic strategy is its way forward to make necessary resources available for its population. However, it does not end here. Creation of a Sino-Centric world order and the promotion of One-China policy are at the core of China’s geoeconomics. This article focuses on China’s geoeconomics in Africa and how does it help China promote its One-China Policy in the continent.
The One-China Policy is China’s official stance which stresses on diplomatic recognition of People’s Republic of China’s government as the only legitimate Chinese government. China considers the Republic of China, commonly known as Taiwan, as its breakaway region which will one day reunify. The end of civil war in 1949 created the demarcation between China and Taiwan whose leader Chiang Kai-Shek withdrew to Taiwan and established the Nationalist government there. Since then both sides claim to be sole representative of the whole territory of China. However, Taiwan’s claim over mainland China is somehow receding. Mainland China, on the other hand, strongly claims Taiwan to be its integral part and does not leave any stone unturned to diplomatically isolate it. Geoeconomics is China’s main weapon to achieve this political goal.
Due to its geoeconomics, China’s footprints in Africa are getting strength with every passing moment. China uses its geoeconomic leverage to promote its One-China policy in Africa and strives to further isolate Taiwan diplomatically.

However, China’s geoeconomics in Africa is not a recent phenomenon. It can be traced back to Mao’s Great Leap Forward era. In this context, Julia Lovell in her book, “Maoism A Global History” claims that from the very beginning of Africa’s decolonization, China started exerting a symbolic influence on the continent. Such influence, she claims, was significant for China’s winning entrance into the United Nations. African states, however small, were numerous and played in favour of China’s seat in the UN. In 1971, China took over the seat from Taiwan and became member of the UN. Moreover, China also took over the permanent membership of the UN Security Council from Taiwan which it held till 1971. Hence, China’s geoeconomics in Africa has over a half century history which has been bearing multi-faceted fruit for China.

China maintains strong geoeconomic balance of dependency in all countries of Africa.

China’s geoeconomics in Africa supports its powerhouse in the world affairs. The African continent does not only support political stance of the mainland China in the world but it also provides China with abundance of resources. It is a win-win situation for China. The value trade between China and Africa in 2019 was over 200 billion dollars. Besides trade, China has heavily invested in the continent. Its investments focus ranging from building roads and railway tracks to building stadiums and presidential palaces in the Continent.

Therefore, China maintains strong geoeconomic balance of dependency in all countries of Africa. There are 54 countries in the African continent and out of those 54 countries, there is only 1 African country the Kingdom of Eswatini which maintains diplomatic relations with Taiwan. However, China is also putting pressure on it to severe diplomatic ties with Taiwan too. Despite diplomatic pressure from the mainland China, Eswatini maintains its strong diplomatic ties with Taiwan which started after its independence in 1968.


Currently, Estwatini is the only African country among 15 countries that maintain diplomatic relations with Taiwan. However, despite diplomatic isolation, Taiwan maintains substantive ties with the US, countries in the European Union (EU), Canada, Australia and many other countries. Additionally, Taiwan’s passport holders have visa-free, visa on arrival or e-visa privilege in more than 150 states and territories in the world.

Nevertheless, it faces an existential threat from China which may not use force to take it back but it is using its geoeconomics effectively to isolate it diplomatically for the time being following Sun Tzu’s dictum, “The supreme art of war is to subdue the enemy without fighting”. Therefore, following the geoeconomic footsteps, China’s government is effectively winning influence and subduing its enemy without fighting.

young ethnic female student doing assignment with tutor in university
Nowadays, community colleges are not what they used to be – in fact, and there are significant benefits to attend a junior community college. There are a lot of reasons associated with attending a local community college to begin your college education. Many parents prefer to send their children to a community college rather than going to private college because of the advantages it has to offer. Students having a dream school in their mind might not be thinking of enrolling in a community college. But when it comes to paying hefty money for those dream colleges, a community college can be a good start. Besides, students with an excellent academic record at these colleges can get transfer to other renowned institutions around the world. Here are some benefits of enrolling in the community college:

Save on tuition fees

Generally, private college tuition fees are hefty as compared to community college. The private colleges charge thousands of dollars more than the community college for a four-year degree, which not everyone can afford. According to a community college review, the average published fees of a community college for a two-year degree is just $3200. Financial advantage is the most obvious reason that students go for public education. If you plan on transferring to a good institute for further studies, your parents get the chance to save for your 4-year degree.

Idriss Zackaria, Director of YD Africa.

Better transfer opportunities

It works as a perfect solution for students who don’t score well coming out of high school. You can simultaneously obtain an associate degree while working on your GPA and resume. If you are ready to commit to attending regular classes, then you can build up your GPA. Even many renowned universities offer graduate admission program where you are offered direct admission to a 4-year degree course after completing your education at community college successfully. Almost every student who attends a community college has an intention to get transferred to a four-year institution. Everyone wants to get admission in top universities after a two-year degree, so getting admission in a community college can help you attain that milestone.

Smarter classes and increased flexibility

Community colleges are known for their flexible academic curriculum and schedules. It provides more options than any private institute in terms of class schedules, educational opportunities, and other curricular activities. You will get an excellent opportunity to explore a variety of majors program. So, if you think of switching to a private school, it will be more comfortable as the risk involved is smaller. Studying in community colleges is very advantageous as you come across a bounty of activities and opportunities to explore and change your mind.

 

Qualified professors

You will get to meet the best teachers from your town at the community college. Some of them might have come directly after completing their master’s, but mostly you will find Ph.D. holders at public institutions. When parents choose a college for their child, they want them to get educated by the best professors in the region. They all want devoted and committed educators who can teach them through their past experiences. These colleges are not only beneficial for their students but teachers also in terms of salaries and job satisfaction. On the other hand, teachers in private colleges don’t have the same level of education, experience, and commitment.

Personalized attention

Many community colleges have less class strength, which gives each student more attention from the teachers. It can be a plus point for students who need special attention and extra care because every student is unique. Some students have excellent grasping power, and others learn at their own pace. If your child needs special one-on-one attention from the instructors, then community college is the best choice for them. Therefore, they are preferred by most of the parents so that their child gets more personalized attention from the teachers.

The bottom line

Experience a different educational environment while studying in community college. These benefits mentioned above of the community college are sufficient to convince anyone to attend it. No matter what people say, but community college has better education standards than private ones, and this is one of the most significant advantages it holds over private college.

In January following the assassination of Iranian General Qassem Soleimani, the Iraqi parliament voted unanimously for the removal of the remaining U.S. troops in the country. The non-binding resolution was encouraged by Shiite political factions outraged by the killing of Iran-backed militia leader Abu Mahdi al-Muhandis in the same airstrike.

The resolution was subsequently passed without minority Sunni or Kurdish lawmakers present. However, Iraqi-U.S. relations have improved since the selection of a new prime minister in May, Mustafa al-Kadhimi. This selection came about after a leadership vacuum plagued Iraq for four months, following Adil Abdul-Mahdi’s resignation in November 2019. As the country’s former intelligence chief, Kadhimi has good relations with U.S. officials but emphasises his desire to take back sovereignty from foreign powers.

Middle East in a nutshell.

On June 11 the United States and Iraq began strategic talks covering the future of the 5,000 U.S. troops in Iraq and the economic situation following a collapse in oil prices and the developing Covid-19 pandemic. Iran-backed forces in Iraq have been applying pressure for U.S. military withdrawal through relentless shelling of the U.S. Embassy in Baghdad.

The U.S. have an important decision to make on how to withdraw troops from the region without undoing years of hard work since the U.S. first began engaging in Iraq in 2003. However, as conflict between U.S. and Iranian proxies accelerates a path toward two alternatives is developing; all-out war or a fast US withdrawal.

Here, I will briefly outline what I perceive to be the outcomes from the U.S. choosing to either withdraw, partly withdraw or remain in Iraq.

Firstly, the option to withdraw U.S. troops from Iraq would avoid further conflict and all-out war in the region with Iranian proxies. However, this undermines the U.S. efforts to counter Iranian influence in the region. The U.S. acts as a counterweight to Iran and once withdrawn would expose an economically hurt Iraq to the more powerful Iran. The increasing Iranian presence is likely to spark yet more protests against foreign interference following protests in October 2019, resulting in the death of 420 Iraqi protesters and the resignation of prime minister Adil Abdul-Mahdi. Furthermore, the U.S. has held an important role in training and funding Iraq’s counterterrorism service. Peter Neumann, the founding director of the International Centre for the Study of Radicalisation claims this service is “multi-ethnic and largely incorrupt”. The U.S. withdrawal from the region would lead to this counterterrorism service being merged with the Shiite Iranian-backed militias also fighting ISIS. Without the funding and training towards counterterrorism from the U.S. there is the possibility of an ISIS resurgence in Iraq and with it a threat to U.S. national security.

A second approach to U.S. withdrawal from Iraq would be to transfer troops to military bases in the autonomous Kurdistan region in the north, at the request of the Kurds. The presence of US forces acts as an insurance policy for Sunni’s and Kurds against a rejuvenation of ISIS and help to strike a balance between all Iraqi religious sects and political powers. Galip Dalay, a fellow at the German Institute for International and Security Affairs noted that a U.S. withdrawal would mean that “the Kurds would be more at the mercy of the militias, Iran and the central government”. This option would likely relinquish Iraq’s ability to resist Iran and so surrender the majority of Iraq to Iranian influence in the same way as in the previously explained option. In addition, would U.S. bases in Kurdistan afford the Kurds the strength to apply pressure in disputed regions, leading to increasing tensions between Kurdistan and the ceded pro-Iran Iraq region?

Moreover, the U.S. may choose not to withdraw and remain a presence in Iraq but levy significant economic sanctions on Iran leading to a defunding of the militias in Iraq. The U.S. policy of “maximum pressure” imposing economic sanctions on Iran, has led to an inflationary recession in the country and the Iranian currency to fall two-thirds of its value. Despite food and medicine being exempt from sanctions the lack of Iran’s access to the global financial system has led to shortages in these necessities. Although the sanctions are failing to bring Iran back to the negotiating table or trigger unrest in the country and an overthrow of the regime, the sanctions are successfully cutting funding to Iran-backed militias in Iraq. Earlier this year the new commander of the Iranian Quds Force, Esmail Ghaani, had to substitute the usual cash handouts to Iraqi militias for silver rings. The reduction in funding has led to divisions emerging in the Popular Mobilisation Forces (PMF), the umbrella group of mainly Shia fighters. Could economic sanctions on Iran lead to a breakup and loss in cohesion between the Pro-Iran factions responsible for attacks on U.S. forces?

The final option occurs where the U.S. does not withdraw from Iraq and the U.S. are unable to sufficiently thwart Iran economically leading to a continuing of the current status quo of retaliatory conflict in Iraq between militias and U.S. However, is it impossible to conceive of a “hot war” between the U.S. and Iran in the future if tensions rise and the Iranian regime is not brought to its knees? Despite the U.S. comparatively dwarfing Iran militarily with the U.S. military budget being over 57 times larger than Iran’s, the challenges of increasing competition with Russia and China makes conflict with Iran unappealing. Therefore, if the U.S. were to maintain their presence in Iraq, they should do so by continuing with the small force currently stationed there focused on training and support of the Iraqi Security Forces.

Of the options discussed here I would suggest maintaining the U.S. presence in Iraq with a focus on avoiding conflict and training Iraqi Security Forces. By staying in the region the counterweight the U.S. holds against the increasing Iranian presence in Iraq and against the rejuvenation if ISIS is maintained. Furthermore, the insurance the U.S. provide to minority groups is not threatened and conflict is not heightened by moving U.S. troops to the Kurdistan region.

MongoDB is one of the globe’s most widely-sought after NoSQL object-oriented databases. However, like all databases, it has specific areas where it booms and others where it falters. Should you use this database for your particular business needs? Read this guide on its pros and cons to decide.

These are some aspects that you may not have a clear knowledge about. In such a case, it makes sense to take the help of a professional. They have the knowledge and understanding of what will suit your business.  Consult with them and they will help you out.

MongoDB- When should you use MongoDB for your business needs?

One of the best ways to determine whether you should use MongoDB or not is to check whether your business participates in several e-commerce products cataloging with large inventories primarily due to horizontal scalability? If yes, this database will work for your business well.

Another area where the MongoDB works well is with social networking and mobile networking websites that use geospatial data and frequently experience dynamically evolving application and data needs. The database works well for companies that rely heavily on content management and produces a vital amount of documentation, in short. MongoDB will come in useful when you are dealing with Big Data.

When should you not use MongoDB for your business needs?

It would help if you did not rely on MongoDB when your company needs strong consistencies across the database boards. However, businesses that are actively involved with billing, SLA management, trade verifications, detection of fraud, and other types of financial data should never consider MongoDB to be the key database for their business.

The best features of the MongoDB for modern businesses today

Experts in database administration say there are many ways to use MongoDB. However, you will find several ways to use this database but not for every business. The database’s specific features have many advantages, which is why it is one of the most popular NoSQL databases across the world today. Given below are some of its unique qualities –

Performance- The query performance of the MongoDB is faster as it stores maximum data in the RAM. This means the data is not taken from the hard disk during query requests. To boost the above, businesses should ensure they have precise indexes and a significant RAM.

 

Simple- Several users of MongoDB find its query syntax to be very simple and easy to understand. This is due to its query language that is more expressive than SQL. Its installation, the setup, and the execution of the database are much simpler than other databases. This is why more businesses and people embrace this NoSQL structure over their SQL counterparts for faster training and quicker learning.

 

Flexibility- The database has no pre-defined schema. This makes it get an architecture that is dynamic for storage and data that is unstructured. You can easily set values for a large number of keys making the database a potential one. This database is popular in modern times for its flexibility. If you see the vast inflow of data changing at a dynamic speed, having a MongoDB database is advantageous.

 

Scalable- One of the biggest features of the MongoDB database is its credible scalability. SQL databases utilize vertical scalability, whereas MongoDB, like NoSQL databases, deploys horizontal scalability that makes it simple to improve storage capacity.

 

Documentation- Experts from credible database administration and support company, Com, say that when you take a look at MongoDB’s resources, you will find an extensive cache of data that is precise documentation. In fact, for each version and edition, MongoDB does not ignore the details. The database offers excellent documentation for helping new and seasoned users understand the technology better.

Cons of the MongoDB database when you compare it to others

If some of the above features of MongoDB are great, other aspects are not entirely favorable for users. Though the pros of the database outweigh its cons in most cases, there are some fields where MongoDB does not perform as well as its other database peers. Let us take a look at them below-

Transactions- One of the biggest disadvantages of MongoDB is that it does not offer support for transactions. In modern days, you will find that fewer applications need transactions. Some still require them for updating collections and multiple documents. If your business operates on transactions that are mandatory for your team, you should not use MongoDB. There is a huge potential of the data becoming corrupted in case you do.

 

Joins- In MongoDB, it is very challenging and tough for you to join documents. Even though the 3.2 version introduced the left-outer joining feature, developers still need to work on the feature as it is not mature. If you need to pull information or data from many collections, you need a large number of queries that will lead to very long turnaround times and messy codes.

 

Indexing- This factor has been covered earlier. If you want to enjoy the database’s fast and optimal performance, you need to have the right indexes. If the indexes you incorporate are shoddy or are out of order, the database will function at an alarmingly slow pace.

 

Duplicates- Some of the above cons will ultimately result in duplicate data. This has taken place for several users back in the past. MongoDB’s relationship has not been defined properly, and the duplicate sets that have resulted are quite challenging to manage. Moreover, if the database is not ACID compliant, this could cause corrupted data. Be careful of this.

When choosing a good database for your business, make sure you ascertain what your individual needs are. In this way, you should place them first before embracing MongoDB for your company. In case you need more clarifications about MongoDB, you should consult good IT professionals or DBAs to get a defined and clearer idea of whether this database is ideal for your business or not.

 

 

After you’re doing UK business registration and getting an online bank account UK, one of the most important things for a business is the right accountancy services. For a business to be successful, it must have professional accountants to take care of everything, from bookkeeping to tax preparation. 

Let’s begin to discuss some of the reasons why accountancy services UK are so important and why your company, especially when you’re opening a company in a different country. 
Which Accounting Services UK Do You Need?
First and foremost, you need to know which services you’re hiring accountants for. If you are working with a company formation agent, they’ll most probably cover everything from bank account offers in the UK to online accounting services in the UK. So, you won’t have to pay for additional accountancy charges. Otherwise, you can outsource accounting services while you give all your time and attention to other aspects of the business. 

Here are the common accountancy services that you’ll need for your business:

Tax preparation
Bookkeeping 
Consulting and advising
Audit and assurance

Thus, you need a team of accountants that can provide you all these services so that you don’t have to distribute them about different accounting firms. 
Reasons for Getting Accounting Services UK
Once you are done with UK business registration, it is not the end of your encounter with official documents. Throughout the business operations, you will come across UK laws related to taxation and other things. 

If you’re a non-resident, you won’t have a clue about the regulations of the country and might not be willing to learn a new tax system. Thus, it’s essential to get the most reliable online accountancy services UK to manage your company’s accounts. 
Finding the Business Structure
You have to find the right business structure for your company to get tax benefits and be in compliance with the country’s regulations. An accountant can guide you in this matter, helping you find the business structure from the following:

Corporations
Sole trader
Trust 
Partnership
LLC

Financial Advising and Analysis

Money is one of the most important aspects of every business. When running a company, you need to know how much money you have, where it is being spent, and how you can cut costs while keeping the company’s operations as smooth as possible. 

Accountants analyze the finances of your company and advise you on proper financial management. Having an incredible team of accountants by your side means that you’ll hardly ever find yourself in a financial situation that you cannot get out of. 

Also, accountants give you advice about using the right software. All businesses need accounting software. With no accountancy knowledge, you can’t possibly know which software will be the best for your business structure and specific company needs. An accountant can help make the decision much easier, making your accounting journey smooth. 
Expense Tracking 
Another important part of business management is expense tracking. You have to keep track of everything from employee salaries to business transactions. It’s practically impossible to do this while running other departments of your company. Thus, you should leave this to a reliable accountancy firm, which will keep a record of everything you earn and how it is spent. 
Tax Preparation 
While you can do your own taxes as an individual, doing company taxes is a much harder job. Thus, you need to use tax services UK to help prepare tax returns. Having accountants by your side means that you’ll be able to get the tax benefits that the country offers, without having to do as little as reading the first page of the tax documents. 
Final Verdict 
People from all over the world are coming to the UK to start their businesses as the country offers tax benefits and makes investment easier. From getting a UK business bank account to bank account offer UK, everything is much easier than in most other parts of the world. 

If you are also planning to open a company in the UK, you must use the best accounting services UK to avail tax benefits and strictly track all your expenses. Get started today with the company formation process and take your business forward in the UK. 

The current border skirmshes along LAC (Line of Actual Control) reported in Eastern Ladakh sector and Northern Sikkim, injuring a dozen of soldiers in physical clashes, followed by increased troop positioning and increased boat-patrolling by PLA in Galwan River valley is a worrying trend for India.

This all amid a time when India is still struggling to contain the COVID Pandemic, all these incidents taking place seems insensitive now. Chinese foreign ministry spokesperson Zhao Lijian stated: “Chinese border troops have always been upholding peace and tranquility along our border areas. China and India stay in close communication and coordination concerning our border affairs within existing channels”.  The statements from The COAS of Indian Army Gen. M M Naravane said, “There were two incidents at Eastern Ladakh and North Sikkim where aggressive behaviour by both sides resulted in minor injuries to troops post which both sides disengaged after dialogue and interaction at local level”, both these statements helped to downplay the flare-up in the current situation.
An unprecedented Act?


The disputes between Indian military and PLA (People’s Liberation Army) on border areas of LAC has been the issue since the past, but the recent development on the border is different from what we have seen in the past, where in the past the tensions used to de-escalate after the meetings by local military leaders, this time however, the chinese troops are alleged to build camps near Galwan Valley with increased boat patrols in Galwan river, with no sign of abatement even after the continuous meetings between military leaders of both sides. Equally new is the vociferous act by PLA and the frequency with which these incidents happened.

Another unprecedented act is the silence of Chinese media and Chinese officials who are adopting a Silence Diplomacy, a rare show, on this issue unlike the Doklam Crisis where daily on-ground reporting was used to uplift the sentiments of the local population against India. This time, it is different with everything happening silently and with more force.
The Reasons for Dispute
China seems to be upping the ante against India. What can be the possible reasons behind it, is it a perception of boundary problem, or is it problem of taking away of special status from J&K by The GOI, or is it the recent road development by India on the Indian side of LAC, or is it the move to draw a red line for India by China over India’s changing state by supporting the Taiwan issue and an independent investigation into the origin of the Pandemic. There are several possibilities one can think of, and several analysts and experts are offering different perceptions in this regard.

India and China have a real issue of perception of boundaries, what game theorists refer to as the “Commitment problem.” In game theory, a commitment problem arises when two actors would be better off in the present by committing themselves to a cooperative relationship in the future. But, if the actors know that they will prefer to renege on their agreement in the future, the benefits of cooperation in the present cannot be realized, and even a mutually beneficial agreement cannot be struck. Simply put, if “Rising” India assumes that her material power and leverage vis-a-vis China is likely to improve, India has no incentive on accepting a China’s “benign hegemony” and a negotiated settlement at a time when India cannot realise the advantage of this increased leverage. This is also true in China’s case, with an aspiration of future “Global power”, China considers to be getting more out of India in the future. A status quo agreement that seeks to formalize the existing LAC becomes difficult to accept.

Now to understand why it is happening on Indian borders, we also have to look at the development in Chinese politics. Recently the 13th National People’s Congress (NPC) and 3rd session of 13th China People’s Political consultative Congress  (CPPCC) have concluded, which are considered to be the biggest events for the political class in China. The CCP (Chinese Communist Party) who is under severe criticism from Chinese citizens due to the Economic crisis and the handling of COVID, has opted a strategy to flex its muscles in this time to strengthen its position. The simmering tension inside CCP has made Mr. Xi do the things with alacrity and whenever an autocratic regime finds itself in danger of coup or oust, it acts vociferously inside and outside, to strengthen its position, that is what we are now seeing from Mr. Jinping’s side.

Another area to look upon is recent development in global politics, where allegations on China’s role in the contagion (COVID) has strengthened worldwide, which has prompted China to look for ways to shut the voices, be it sanctioning Australia or drawing red lines for India through border dispute or Employing the show of Power Politics in the South China Sea to shut the voices in neighbouring states. The issue of Taiwan’s inclusion into WHO and the increasing voice against Chinese action in Hongkong (where PRC has recently passed a National security bill taking away the sovereignty of Hongkong), are the issues which China has perceived as an attack to her One-China policy, which prompted China to act violently.
The recent development of Road (DSDBO) by India on the India side of LAC upto Galwan Valley is something which China wants India to avoid. China has good infrastructure near Border areas, but this is not the case for India, however, India has made strides in the recent past. The latest skirmishes on LAC is an excuse China is giving for her actions which is a red sign from Chinese side to India. Here, China is opting for a Pakistani strategy of blaming India for escalations on borders and justifying her actions against India.
All these amalgamate to make the current issue more serious. Now looking behind closed doors, what we don’t know is the big aspirations of current Chinese leader Mr. Jinping, to be the best leader in the Chinese history vis-a-vis his predecessors, for that what he needs is a powerful regime both Politically and Economically, which can only be consolidated when CCP looks powerful worldwide and at home, which Mr. Jinping is trying to do through coercion.
Wuhan spirit- A dead concept?
Now what about the Wuhan spirit which helped India and China to de-escalate the tensions in the Doklam area. India and China have signed several agreements, including the Agreement on the Maintenance of Peace and Tranquillity along the Line of Actual Control in the India-China Border Areas (September 1993), the Agreement on Confidence Building Measures in the Military Field along the Line of Actual Control in the India-China Border Areas (November 1996), and most recently, the Border Defence Cooperation Agreement (2013), none of which appear so far to have helped in the current tensions.
One must question the efficacy of the Wuhan Spirit, that is it really in the Indian interest now, seeing the current Chinese aggression. To answer this, We must also know the fact that Wuhan Spirit, as it is pronounced, was a measure to put-down the pressure during the Doklam crisis, which is very much different from the current situation. We must not get diverged from the fact that the current game of PLA is a long drawn strategy of PRC to capture its lost territory by small and decisive steps be it the Tibetisation of Indian Himalayas or circling India through String of pearls, every action in Chinese book has a hidden meaning and a long-term plan. Wuhan spirit is a hollow agreement by China to show the willingness to work for resolving border issues, which doesn’t reap any results in that direction, so relying on Wuhan spirit is a fallacy today.

The Road Ahead of India
The current situation is somewhat a fait accompli for India if China moves ahead by building more checkposts, then India will have two ways to confront the situation, either face the Chinese face-to-face and escalate the situation, or back-off, same as what Chinese had during the Doklam Crisis. They did back-off, but is it feasible for India.

In Diplomacy, Patience is mostly a virtue, until it is not.

The current situation doesn’t support a backing-off option and a patient approach, India needs to confront the situation with the same force as China, to send a message, at the same time increasing diplomatic pressure through forging relationships with like-minded countries is what is in the best interest of India today.
A Carnegie report highlights, the best way to guarantee “peace and tranquility” on the Sino-Indian border is to focus on military-to-military communication, which would “allow the two sides to immediately clarify any relevant issues at a more senior directive level.” Also building a military deterrence capability to reduce any future possible Chinese provocations on borders is an imperative for India today.
Conclusion
The current situation does not allow China to go on for an all-out war with India, because it will cost them Economically as well as Politically, which they cannot bear. The current geopolitical air is on the Indian side with a strengthening anti-Chinese narrative , so India is in a lead position vis-a-vis China.

The need of the hour is to de-escalate the tensions on LAC and focus on the health and Economic crises prevailing throughout the World. As Henry A. Kissinger once said,

” No foreign policy- No matter how ingenious it is- has any chance of success if it is born in The Minds of a few and carried in the Hearts of none”

The current Chinese actions fits exactly into these words. Unless the Chinese leadership considers how flawed the time they have chosen for these actions without considering its consequences, they will continue to face a dead-hole situation, from which there is no coming back.

Goré— Following the last outbreak of civil wars in the Central African Republic (CAR) in 2013;
thousands of Chadians living in the country sought refuge in Chad, mainly in the country’s
southern provinces. The Chadians who have returned to their country of origin; they are called
“returnees” — Thousands of those returnees lived in CAR for decades and generations, were
then forced to return to Chad due to conflict and ethnic cleansing. More than 115,000 of the
returnees are currently in Chad; about 80,000 of them are currently living in the poor Southern
parts of the country; in the Logon Occidental and Logon Oriental provenances. Goré is one of
poorest and most underdeveloped parts of the country; is already hosting more than 43,000
Central African refugees and about 45,000 Chadian returnees from CAR and few other refugees
from Democratic Republic of Congo. During a four-week visit to the south parts of the country;

Several waves of refugees have arrived to Chad since 2017.


Young Diplomats’ Africa regional director, Idriss Zackaria; has paid a visit to several camps in
the regions, seeking for an innovative programme to integrate refugees and returnees, and
provide peace awareness programme.
When home doesn’t feel like home
For many of the “returnees”; Chad is an unfamiliar place and totally unknown world. Even
though some of them are proud to get home safely, however, they face enormous difficulties and
challenges; including their lack of belonging, coping with change and facing fear, lack of
documentation and subsequent inability to access basic services; almost a total dependence on
humanitarian assistance, and having to share meager resources with host communities that are
themselves poverty-stricken. In addition to their attachment to a foreign country that some of
them call it “home” and relative unfamiliarity with their homeland result in insurmountable
obstacles to their ambitions and dreams.
Youssouf Ahmat, 41, a father of eight children, he returned to Chad six years ago with his wife
and his children. In CAR – precisely in Bossangoa; the capital of Ouham – he was a cattle trader
and broker, but he lost everything including his house and his cows during the civil war. Today
he can’t run a new business but he kept working as a broker in Goré and some other villages’
markets around Goré. When we first met him, he sounded to us like a tribal leader – very strong
personality and kind.
Ahmat’s story is amazing just like many other returnees we met at Danamadja camps, when he
thinks about his life back in CAR; sadness, nostalgia and mixed feelings are inevitable. He told
us “It is nostalgic and sometimes it hurts when I think about all the things that I lost just within a
few days after years of hard working and achievements.” Ahmat still believes that CAR can be
his second home, but said that he considers Chad to be his first home because Chad is where all
his family belongs; it is the safest country for him even thought he is facing difficult economic
situations for the moment. “I have been struggling so hard to put some bread on the table for my
children. It’s been a complex for me and my family for the last six years. It’s almost impossible
for the kids to adjust to the new changes, they don’t feel like they belong” Ahmat added
Dahabaye Ahmat, a mother of seven children. She lost her ex-husband during the civil war. She
was living in a neighborhood which was heavily hot by violence. When she first arrived in Chad

she was resettled in Danamadja camps, a ten-minute drive from Goré – distance doubles during
the rainy season – in the deep; Dahabaye reflected some heartfelt emotions – said that the death
of her ex-husband had been the most painful emotional period of her life. ‘’CAR is a nightmare
for me and my children; I don’t even want to think about it. My ex husband was killed and cut
off to pieces by the Anti-Balaka militias, I couldn’t save him. CAR was probably better only for
the market. Here, you can hardly sell anything. I’m here with my daughters. WFP is helping us
but not as much as before. I receive five USD per month. They sometimes take three months to
provide food for us, but I am ok to be here as long as God is taking care of me and my kids” said
Dahabaye
Should I stay or should I go?
Perhaps; the life of many of these returnees starts with a single question at Danamadja camps:
Should I stay or should I leave? For Oumar Ali; that question was answered when he first arrived
to Chad. According to him; getting home safely and finding shelter is not the end of his
nightmare. As he tells us his story, we have a sense that there is something terribly wrong in this
situation. ‘’we have lost our individuality and humanity in these camps, it is impossible to see a
doctor, trader, teacher, mechanics, farmer or anyone that can tell me something about the way
forward. I only see mothers, fathers, children and grandparents who share the same struggles and
fears with me. We have become homeless in our own home. That’s why, there is no reason for
me to stay here anymore, I am leaving.’’ Ali added
The desire to return to CAR varies among Chad’s returnees. In Danamadja, some traders say that
they lost everything and do not want to set foot again in CAR. Many of them intend to start
businesses in Chad and are confident about finding a place in Chad’s economic and social fabric
despite the hardships. According to Ahmat, he is still interested to go back to CAR only when
there’s security and peace “If there is security for everybody, we will manage to start again from
here. Then we will go back to CAR. Simply; because we know how to make money there” said
Ahmat
In their own words, their quest to find safety is coasting them their economic dignity; “I don’t
want to go back to CAR even though my economic conditions are difficult here. I don’t want to
risk the lives of my children. I am going to stay here for the rest of my life.” Dahabaye replied
Remaining in legal limbo with no way forward
By contrast, most of the Chadian returnees say they do not want to stay in Chad and will return
to CAR when it is safer. Many of them emphasize that they do not have connections with their
relatives in Chad, having never been to the country. In Danamadja camp, an old man who lost his
herd spoke about new job prospects back in CAR: “I have close friends who work in the
diamond and gold trade and others in trade in general; I’ll see what I can do to work again”. All
of them focus on how, before the crisis, they lived peacefully with their fellow citizens and regret
that, as Muslims, they are seen as supporting Seleka group. “They thought we were part of the
Seleka because we are Muslims” confides the old man before adding, “If the crisis ends, we’ll
definitely go back to Central African Republic and we’ll start again like before. However, I can’t
go anywhere else for the moment…transport is too expensive and risky now.” While some

returnees remain optimistic, others realize that given the level of violence in CAR, reconciliation
will be almost impossible, or a long and difficult process.
It is remarkable to see how a vision shared by all the returnees whom we interviewed, one related
to the lack of sense of belonging, which is a critical first step in supporting their recovery
journey. However, the Danamadja camps offer a good sample of the diversity for the returnees
affected by the crisis: from herders with or without their cattle, to farmers, merchants, gold
dealers and students. Many Fulanis – Uda, Sankara, Mbororo and Jaafun – targeted in the bush
with their cattle by the anti-balaka are in the camps. Other Arab traders, such as Misseriya,
Awlad Rashid or Salamat who lost everything during days of anti-balaka lootings, are also
camped with them. Finally, there are, to a lesser extent, some Gbaya people, Manja, Ngbaka and
Kaba from farming communities, in addition to a few number of haussa, Borno and Gouran who
fled the violence. As the CAR refugees and the “Chadian returnees” rarely have identity cards,
and among the latter many claim Central African citizenship or deny Chadian connections, it is
still easy to determine who Chadian is and who Central African is.
From these facts one may conclude that, food distribution plan needs to consider beneficiary's
interests. Due to funding constraints, the last food distribution at Danamadja site took place in
April. The site has already suffered, what people here call “the village” are shelters built in the
neighboring forest with no schools or social initiatives. It is worth mentioning that social and
economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic could be worse than its health consequences at
these camps in the short and longer term.

There are a lot of nations which went from being Poor to Rich and even nations that went from Rich to Poor
But there is a nation which went from literal nothing to the most developed economy in West Asia within 60 or so years, and that too despite all odds being stacked against. If you haven’t guessed it, it is Israel.
It was only a concept before 1948 and it’s birth was a through a bloody partition which led to a full-scale war between the new nation and almost all of Arab states which it survived but it also led to a boycott from almost all nations in West Asia and almost all states around it declared elimination of Isreal as a goal and was actively working towards it.
In a situation like this where stability is to be fought for, it will be almost impossible to achieve a functioning economy, let alone a developed economy, and looking at neighboring nations like Syria and Jordan, where even basic centralisation is still contested, Israel is almost at another league.
Note:- I would like to hereby say that i have tried to keep Politics out of it and try to solely focus on how the Economy of Israel works and i have to further clarify that i am a firm believer in International Law and this is my official stand on the issue.

David Ben-Gurion, the first PM of Israel and a Polish Migrant with Golda Meir, the first Female PM of Israel and an Ukranian Migrant
The first and best thing Israel got perfectly right was their immigration policy. The upside of Immigration is that their descendants are more likely to succeed in any fields than natives, and the downside of immigration is integrating their culture and customs with the the culture of the host nation.
For purely non-economic reasons, they managed to find the fine-line between this through “The Law of Return” which stupulated that anyone with Jewish Lineage is eligible for Israeli Citizenship, so what this meant is that Israel has a steady flow of enthusiastic migrants from all over the world but also shares some fundamental characteristics with the host population, As a result, 33% of Israel’s current population is born abroad and 90% of the Population is of Immigrant Descent.

Current PM of Israel Benjamin Netanyahu(R) serving on Israeli Special Forces, he later went to MIT for studies
Another Non-Economic reason that contributed to Israel’s stipulation that almost all citizens of Israel, Male or Female, are required to serve in the military for 2 years, and Isreal is the only nation in the world to have compulsory Military Service for women.
The primary reason for this was to equip all the citizens to be reserve troops in case a conflict comes and was aimed to increase National Security and instill Patriotism. But a side effect of this was that the population learned many valuable life skills like Discipline, Management, Organisation, Survival Skills which will a huge help when someone is in R&D or is running a business.
Most Asian civilisations tend to have a rather ambivalent attitude towards risk taking and and on a sadder note, tends to cherish mediocrity. But traditionally Jews have been a community who have been involved with money and finance and also highly educated (thank Catholic Church for that!) and when Israel came into being, this trait was inherited by higher spending on education which is something that is absent in other West Asian nations, this along with the attitude of Chutzpah, which resents mediocrity, made Israel a breeding ground for entrepreneurs.
This is not to say that Israel had a great smooth ride to development, most of Israel’s early economic policy was Socialist-Leaning in nature and this coupled with intermittent conflicts with neighbors and rampant instability made the functioning of the economy a messy affair.
However this changed after hyperinflation hit nearly a 100% in 1986 which forced the government to launch a new stable currency and this incident forced the government to rethink their strategies.They were forced to adopt pro-entrepreneur policies after nearly 800,000 people emigrated from the erstwhile Soviet Union and they needed jobs. For this, The Government was forced to encourage young Israelis to start businesses an employ as much as possible and used their global diaspora to attract Investment from all over the world.
All this was helped by the Peace Treaty signed by Fateh and Israel which brought relative stability to the otherwise volatile area. The Government instead of following laissez-faire attitude to businesses, continued their socialist legacy by investing in young companies until they became profitable, thereby acting as a de facto VC Fund and the ancient Jewish tradition of running Farming Communities called kibbutz was metamorphed into IT Parks and Industries. Maybe India can learn a thing or two here
Coincidentally, most of Israel’s tech industry is focused around the ancient community of Tel Aviv-Yafo, which is one of the leading areas for R&D in the world right up with Silicon Valley and also forms the Silicon Triad with Bengaluru the Silicon Plateau with the moniker of Silicon ‘Wadi‘ meaning valley in Hebrew

A kibbutz turned into Tech Incubator
Israel’s budget allocation for Research and Development per capita ranks #2 in the world just below South Korea and as a result top universities in Israel ranks highly in World Rankings despite being young and many tech giants like Intel, Microsoft and Google run a significant portion of R&D from Israel.
Another area where Israel pioneered is Agricultural Technology and their technology is now wanted in all parts of the world and they are perhaps the only nation which has managed to Greenify a desert and are behind innovations like Greenhouses
An influence of Geopolitics in Israeli R&D is seen in the field of Military Technology Espionage which was widely used by agencies like MOSSAD to advance their objectives and their tech is now wanted by many World Governments, mostly authoritarian and their nee clients now include old foes like Saudi Arabia

Israel’s GDP/Capita Growth, compared to their old oil rich rival Saudi Arabia
Israel’s GDP has risen ten-fold from 34 Billion to 370 Billion between 1986 and today and Israel has the highest living standards and the highest HDI score at anywhere in Middle East at 0.906 and Israel is considered as the only stable democracy in the area and Arabs in Israel, rather counterintuitively, enjoys more Political Rights and Opportunities than anywhere in West Asia which tells a lot.
Israel’s path to development is one of the most unique stories in the field of Development Economics where development happened not by following Economic Principles, but through a convergence of several outside unrelated factors, which when put into optimum usage, converted Israel into the behemoth it is today

Introduction

Russia has promised greater support for parents as the country continues to struggle with a low birth rate.e

“We have to help young people, those who want a family life and are dreaming about children,” President Vladimir Putin said in an annual address to lawmakers.

Countries need to have a birth rate of at least 2.1 children per woman to sustain the population, but the average figure in Europe is about 1.59.

According to the UN, two-thirds of countries in Europe have introduced measures to increase fertility rates, from baby bonuses and tax incentives to paid parental leave, with varying degrees of success.

What did Putin promise ? 

President Putin says that Russia’s birth rate is currently at 1.48 women per children. While this is a significant increase from 1999, when the figure fell to 1.16, Mr Putin hopes to raise the level to 1.7.

Under the proposals, first-time mothers would be eligible to receive maternity benefits previously paid only to women with two or more children.

Welfare benefits would also be paid for children aged three to seven in low-income families, and free school meals would be provided for the first four years of school.

Last year, Mr Putin promised tax breaks for bigger families.

A one-off “maternity capital” payment, currently worth £5,800 ($7,600; €6,800), was introduced for families with two or more children in 2007 under a 10-year programme.

Demography expert Prof Evgeny Yakovlev told BBC Russian that the move had temporarily increased the number of families with two children but added that financial uncertainty subsequently led to another fall in the birth rate.

The situation in Italy 

Like Russia, the Italian government has tried its own financial incentives to encourage couples to have more children.

But an €800 payment per couple per birth, launched in 2015, does not appear to have led to significant changes: Italy still has one of the lowest fertility rates in the EU, with 1.3 children per woman.

Anne Gauthier, professor of comparative family studies at the University of Groningen in the Netherlands, told the BBC that such cash policies “usually have very little impact on the fertility rate”.

She says that while they may lead to a small increase in birth rates in the short term, with some people choosing to have children earlier, “it doesn’t translate at the end of the day to a higher fertility rate. They have been used in a lot of countries and we see the same pattern”.

In the case of Italy, the failure of the incentive may be related to the fact that one-off payments fail to address underlying issues such as social attitudes – an important factor in a country with less than 50% of women in work – or large levels of emigration.

The audacious policy of France

Although its birth rate has fallen in recent years, France still has one of the highest fertility rates in the EU with 1.92 births per women, according to World Bank figures from 2017.

A report published by France’s national institute for demographic studies, Ined, describes the country as a “demographic exception” to the lower birth rate across much of Europe.

Prof Gauthier says that reasons for France’s success in this area could be the range of social policies on offer.

Some countries, she notes, have introduced new benefits that do not balance out the negative impact of other policies, such as tax rates, on families. But “for decades, France has has a Ministry of Families that’s responsible for this package”, she says.

The country has extensive social policies, which provide subsidised child care for younger children and a generous benefits system “especially for larger families”, according to the European Commission.

Families with two or more children receive benefits of at least €131.55 per month and means-tested grants are available, including a payment of €944.51 given at the birth of each child for eligible families.

The policy of Sweden

Similar successes are seen in Scandinavian countries, with an average of 1.9 children per woman in Sweden according to the World Bank’s 2017 figures.

The European Commission says that female and maternal employment rates in the country “are among the highest in the EU, and child poverty is among the lowest”, while parents are given a monthly allowance of up to 1,573 krona (£128; $167), which increases when the child reaches 11 and then 15.

Generous family and social benefits may play a role in their success. Swedish parents are also entitled to 480 days of paid parental leave to share between them, with men claiming about 30% of all leave.

Childcare is also subsidised and working hours are lower in Sweden than in many other countries. In 2018, the average Swede worked 1,474 hours, about 500 hours fewer than the average Russian.

But Prof Gauthier does note that even Scandinavia has begun to see a fall in its fertility rates, showing that the real key to higher birth rates remains unclear.

“With Scandinavia we thought they had got it right… until about last year when their fertility rate started to decline,” she said.

Sources

Here’s the original link towards the website where the article was first published: https://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-51118616

N’Djamena— The Youth Olympic Games (YOG) kicked off on September 02 and continued until 21 September. The Opening Ceremony took place at Paris-Congo Stadium in Chad’s capital city.

The YOG is a multi-sport event organized by Young Diplomats to commemorate the international day of peace. The games were held in N’Djamena to demonstrate the value of friendship and cooperation among the participating athletes, progress purposes and contributing to the search for peaceful and diplomatic solutions to any futuristic conflicts— under the theme: play for peace.

The Game is an elite sporting event for young Chadians, which also incorporates a unique culture and education program, articulated around five main themes: Social responsibility, skill development, leadership building, healthy lifestyles and peace-building.

“A Youth Olympic Games of a new African era”

Running from September 2 to 21, athletes aged from 13 to 14 competed in 10 sports. The closing ceremony attended by a number of high-ranking dignitaries, including the Moroccan Consul to N’Djamena and Young Diplomats’ Africa Regional Director; Idriss Zackaria; both attend the closing ceremony.

“Despite all the obstacles and challenges that stood in our way; I am very much flattered that these Youth Olympic Games have exceeded all our expectations. We would not even have dared to dream of such a success,” said Zackaria in the closing ceremony.

Zackaria also said that Young Diplomats Africa team staged a game with “very impressive” and “touching” moment for the country, adding that it was “truly a youth Olympic games of a new African era”.

There is this vision of sustainability, credibility and youth development, and therefore a strong desire to engage with young men and women. We share this important message of tolerance, justice, equality and peace. We are lucky to be hosting the first Games of this rejuvenated movement in Chad. Our vision is to position these YOG as a new project for young people, a project which relies on young people; games that are organized with, by and for young people, in collaboration with several Chadian sport federations. Added Zackaria

The Closing Ceremony

The 2019 Youth Olympic Games held its closing ceremony at Idriss Mahamat Ouya Stadium in N’Djamena – the capital and largest city of Chad. The first edition attracted around 500 young athletes from the city and after 19 days of competition, it ended by celebrating the International Day of Peace that recognizes the efforts of those people who have worked hard to end the conflicts and promote peace.

Representing the Chadian Minister of Youth and Sports, Mr. Issakha Sougar; said that his ministry is ready to work with Young Diplomats as hard as possible and promises that “the department in charge of the promotion of youth and sports will spare no effort to support the initiatives of Young Diplomats in its policy of capacity building through the practice of sport by young people”.